Special Characters and Symbols in LaTeX

Following is the way to use special characters and symbols while creating a document using LaTeX:



Symbol/Character Way to get it in LaTeX
Quotation Marks two ` (grave accent) for opening quotation marks.
two ‘ (vertical quote) for closing quotation marks.

Dashes and Hyphens L TEX knows four kinds of dashes. Access three of them with different number
of consecutive dashes. The fourth sign is actually not a dash at all—it is the
mathematical minus sign.
The names for these dashes are: ‘-’ hyphen, ‘–’ en-dash, ‘—’ em-dash
and ‘−’ minus sign.

Examples of each are shown below:

  • daughter-in-law —-> daughter-in-law
  • pages 13–67 —-> pages 13–67
  • yes—or no? —-> yes—or no?
  • $0$, $1$ and $-1$ —-> 0, 1 and −1
Tilde (∼) $\sim$demo
Slash (/) \slash
Degree Symbol (◦)

The textcomp package makes the degree symbol also available as \textdegree
or in combination with the C by using the \textcelsius.

The Euro Currency Symbol


NOTE: its available in textcomp package

Ellipsis (. . . )

On a typewriter, a comma or a period takes the same amount of space as
any other letter. In book printing, these characters occupy only a little space
and are set very close to the preceding letter. Therefore, entering ‘ellipsis’
by just typing three dots would produce the wrong result. Instead, there is
a special command for these dots. It is called



Some letter combinations are typeset not just by setting the different letters
one after the other, but by actually using special symbols.

These so-called ligatures can be prohibited by inserting an \mbox{} between
the two letters in question. This might be necessary with words built from
two words.

1 \Large Not shelfful\\
2 but shelf\mbox{}ful

1.Not shelfful
2. but shelfful

Basic LaTex document classes

Document Class Name Usage/meaning
 article for articles in scientific journals, presentations, short reports, pro-
gram documentation, invitations, . . .
 proc  a class for proceedings based on the article class.
 minimal is as small as it can get. It only sets a page size and a base font. It
is mainly used for debugging purposes.
 report  for longer reports containing several chapters, small books, PhD
theses, . . .
 book  for real books
 slides   for slides. The class uses big sans serif letters. You might want to
consider using the Beamer class instead.